A comprehensive resource for safe and responsible laser use
Frequently Asked Questions
General interest questions
Below is more information about laser pointer safety in general. There is a separate FAQ for "doubters" -- people who think concern over laser pointers is overblown. Many aviation-related questions are on the FAQ for doubters page.
If you have a question not answered by either FAQ, please contact us using the link at the very bottom of this page.
LASER POINTER HAZARDS
- What are the biggest problems with laser pointer misuse? (Updated in the last 30 days)
- What other laser pointer problems are there? (Updated in the last 30 days)
- Have laser pointers ever caused a vehicle or aircraft accident? (Updated in the last 30 days)
- When does a laser pointer get powerful enough to be dangerous? (Updated in the last 30 days)
- How do I know if I have a too-powerful laser pointer? (Updated in the last 30 days)
- On a CSI:Miami episode, a laser pointer brought down a plane by injuring the pilots' eyes when they were 1/4 mile (1320 feet) in the air. Is this possible?
- A child aimed the beam from a laser level at my toddler son's eyes. Will he be OK?
- A teacher aimed red, green and purple handheld laser pointers at my 4-year-old child...
- STORE LASER SCANNERS
- Can the laser scanner at a checkout injure my eyes?
- LASER USE WHEN HUNTING
- When hunting before dawn or during dusk, I want to know where my friend is. Can he aim a laser pointer at me as I wait in a tree stand?
- Is it safe to view the green laser dot from a laser gunsight, as I look through the reticle?
- REFLECTED LASER LIGHT
- I am a calligrapher and use a laser level so I can write on straight lines. I am looking for an hour or two at lines of red Class IIIa laser light on paper. Could this harm my eyes over time?
- I used a laser pico projector when tracing images for up to 6 hours at a time. Now my right eye is having problems. Could this be from over-exposure to the laser pico projector light?
- SAFE AND LEGAL USE IN THE NIGHT SKY
- Aircraft can look like stars. What is the best way to point out stars in the night sky?
- In the U.S. it is illegal to aim at the flight path of an aircraft. Given that just about anywhere in the sky there could be a flight path, is this a problem for legal laser use?
- LASER POINTER TECHNOLOGY
- How is a laser pointer different from other lasers?
- What is the maximum allowed power?
- What laser pointers are legal?
- What should I do if I have an "illegal" pointer or high-powered laser?
- Are high-power laser pointers required to have specific features?
- What is the maximum power needed for laser pointing?
- What laser color is best?
- I want to make my own laser to burn things. Is this dangerous?
- What is a "military grade" laser?
- What is a "commercial grade" or "industrial grade" laser?
- CONTROL MEASURES
- Is a laser pointer ban effective?
- How does laser misuse compare with knife misuse?
- I am upset and want to pass a law against lasers. Where do I start?
- What is the SAE G10T and why should I care?
- WEBSITE SPONSORSHIP
- How can I support LaserPointerSafety.com?
- Why is ILDA helping sponsor this website?
LASER POINTER HAZARDS
What are the biggest problems with laser pointer misuse?
There are two main areas of concern.
One is the problem of distracting or interfering with pilots' vision when laser pointers are aimed towards aircraft. People have been arrested and even jailed for shining lasers towards planes and helicopters. (See the aviation incident news page for many articles about aircraft/laser incidents, and the Sentences page for fines and jail terms.) So don't do it!
The other problem is eye injuries caused by a person aiming a more powerful handheld laser in their own eyes or at others who are close by. This can cause temporary or even permanent eye injuries. This problem is discussed in more detail on the Consumer laser eye injury info page.
What other laser pointer problems are there?
- Laser pointers have been aimed at cars, busses, trains, boats, barges, and ferries. Just as with aircraft, this can distract or temporarily blind a motorist or driver — this is obviously unsafe.
- During riots or civil disturbances, some protesters have aimed lasers in the eyes of police. Where this is prevalent, police now have eye protection available.
- At sporting events, spectators have aimed laser pointers at players such as football goalies. This is unsportsmanlike (to say the least!) as well as a potential eye hazard for the player.
- At concerts and movie theaters, sometimes an audience member will think it is funny to wave the laser dot around on the stage or screen.
Such misuse will backfire. When ordinary citizens are distracted, harassed, annoyed, or temporarily blinded, they are more inclined to support restrictions or bans on laser pointers.
Have laser pointers ever caused a vehicle or aircraft accident?
Lasers have been misused by aiming at vehicles or aircraft for decades. This website’s author is aware of vehicle-aiming incidents as early as 1981. Regarding aircraft, from 2004 when the FAA began requiring pilots to report laser illuminations, through December 2018 there have been almost 50,000 incidents in the U.S. where lasers were aimed at pilots.
In the discussion below, “accident” is defined as an incident that results in actual damage to the vehicle, aircraft or property; or that results in a bodily injury (e.g., anything beyond a claimed laser light injury to the eyes). In contrast, “incident’ is something potentially hazardous or dangerous, which does not result in property damage or bodily injury.
For example, laser light in a pilot’s eyes may have caused a missed approach and a subsequent go-around. While this incident is cause for serious concern, it did not result in an aircraft accident.
The following information is current as of March 1 2019.
Lasers causing vehicle accidents
- On October 25 2016, a person shining a green laser at another driver caused a three-car crash which resulted in body damage to the vehicles. There were no reported injuries due to the crash or due to the laser light. The incident occurred on Interstate 5 in Oregon.
- The website author is aware of one other documented accident caused by a laser pointer. This comes from a 1999 Springfield, Missouri laser pointer ordinance that references a local accident: “a three-car collision, where a young man pointed a laser light into the car ahead of him and startled the driver, causing him to slam on his brakes and create a pileup.”
- In 1998, a man going nearly 100 mph caused a five-vehicle crash that killed four teens in Morgan Hill, California. Prior to the crash, the man was aiming a laser pointer at other cars. According to the Associated Press, “Law enforcement officials partially blamed the accident on the laser pointer”, although a SF Gate story filed at the same time was less certain: “[I]investigators were trying to find out what role, if any, the laser pointer may have played in the crash.”
- The author has heard informally of five vehicle accidents in France, around 2014, caused by laser visual interference but has not been able to find documentation.
This website’s has a page that lists some non-aviation laser incidents. The stories on this page have tags that include Car, Motorist, Road rage and Driver. Clicking on these tags to find all relevant articles brings up stories where vehicles are targeted by lasers. In some of these, there are incidents including claimed eye injuries. There are even some laser-related deaths, such as when youths suspected of lasering a police car died after being chased by police, or when taxi drivers, angry at teens aiming lasers at them, stabbed a youth to death. But these deaths are not due to laser-caused car crashes.
Lasers causing aircraft accidents
- As of March 1 2019, there have been no documented cases of the light from a laser causing aircraft accidents (e.g., a crash or injury-producing incident).
Anyone with links to documented cases of vehicle or aircraft accidents is asked to email the author (see “Contact us” link at the bottom of any page).
When does a laser pointer get powerful enough to be dangerous?
There is no specific threshold between a "safe" laser beam, a potentially hazardous one, and a clearly dangerous beam. The following are some guidelines.
Bright Light Hazard
Even a "legal" (in the U.S.) 5 milliwatt laser pointer can be a potential hazard if the light distracts or temporarily flashblinds a person such as a pilot. This is why you NEVER aim a laser pointer at an aircraft, or the driver of a vehicle.
For direct damage to the eye, the exact severity will be due to many factors: beam power, exposure time, beam/eye relative motion, distance from the laser, retinal injury location, and a person’s physiological/genetic susceptibility to eye injury (some people are more sensitive than others).
- If a person deliberately stares into a laser, even a small 1 milliwatt beam could cause a spot on the retina.
- Safety standards are based on a person blinking and/or turning away from a bright light within 1/4 second. Taking this into account, an accidental exposure to a 5 milliwatt beam is considered tolerable, as long as the person is not overriding their blink reflex. A 1998 Lancet article by Mensah, Vafidis and Marshall states “A 5 mW laser with high retinal irradiance is too weak to cause retinal damage, even if shone in the eye for several seconds.”
- After some point, even blinking and moving isn't fast enough to prevent injury. As a very rough approximation for laser pointer use, above 10 milliwatts the potential hazard from general use outweighs the benefit of a brighter beam.
- At around 100 milliwatts, an accidental exposure at close range may cause a change to the retina which can be defined as an eye injury. The victim may or may not notice it depending on where the spot is on the retina. The injury may heal after a few days or weeks if the exposure is not too severe. According to the 1998 Lancet article, “Between 100 and 500 mW of diode energy is required to produce a clinically retinal burn.”
At around 150 milliwatts, the beam from a laser can be felt on the skin, depending on the beam focus, skin color (absorption), etc. At roughly 500 milliwatts, the laser's beam begins to be a skin burn hazard if the person is within a few meters of the beam.
Incidentally, even powerful industrial lasers cannot cause deep burns, severed limbs, gun-type injuries or other effects seen in science fiction movies. While multi-watt laser beams are definitely serious eye hazards, they are ineffective at causing incapacitating body injuries.
For more information
Some additional information is in an article from Scientific American, “Can a pocket laser damage the eye?”
How do I know if I have a too-powerful laser pointer?
According to the Food and Drug Administration, which regulates lasers, about 60 percent of lasers they tested in 2018 were over the power listed on the label — or the label did not list a power level. Lasers called “pointers” or sold for pointing, are required to be less than 5 milliwatts in the U.S., and less than 1 milliwatt in countries such as the U.K. and Australia.
These are tips from FDA on how to tell the strength of a handheld laser:
- If the pointer is small and runs on button batteries, its output probably is less than 5 milliwatts.
- If it's pen-sized and runs on AA or AAA batteries, it's likely to be more powerful and may exceed 5 milliwatts.
- If it's flashlight-sized and runs on a cluster of AA or AAA batteries or runs on lithium batteries, it likely exceeds 5 milliwatts.
- Pointers sold with battery chargers probably drain their batteries quickly and are likely to be overpowered.
- Some pointers are sold with a removable cap that spreads the beam into a pattern. If used without the cap, the beam becomes a single beam that could exceed 5 milliwatts.
- Look for keywords that sellers might use to indicate a pointer is highly powered without saying that it's over 5 milliwatts: powerful, bright, ultra, super, military, military grade, super bright, high power, ultra bright, strong, balloon pop, burn, burning, adjustable focus, lithium battery, lithium powered.
- Look for videos or photos that show the laser burning, melting, balloon popping or show a bright, well-defined beam of light
- Look for purchaser comments on websites that tout the brightness or power of the product.
On a CSI:Miami episode, a laser pointer brought down a plane by injuring the pilots' eyes when they were 1/4 mile (1320 feet) in the air. Is this possible?
(The episode is "Money Plane", first aired March 7, 2005.) The CSI:Miami laser scenario as presented was not plausible.
A legal, off-the-shelf laser pointer like the one on the show has a maximum power of 5 mW. At night, a beam from this laser could cause glare out to about 1200 feet. It would prevent a pilot from seeing past the light, until the light was removed. Already, at 1320 feet, the glare level would be very low — distracting but manageable at night.
To make it even less plausible, the laser exposure on the show happened on a clear, sunlit morning. In such a case, the pilot would see a green flash but a pointer would not cause glare or flashblindness. The reason is that the pupil is constricted in bright light, so less light can enter the eye. That means the laser no longer is the brightest, most obscuring light source.
CSI:Miami took another dramatic liberty. The pilot was said to have “corneal scarring”. However, visible light from a laser goes through the clear cornea and is absorbed by the retina. A laser pointer could not cause corneal scarring (though pilots exposed to visible laser light have subsequently rubbed their eyes so hard that they scratched their corneas — a painful and fortunately temporary condition).
Just for reference, a 5 mW laser is an eye hazard up to about 50 feet from the laser. For a pilot who is 1320 feet in the air, the laser light would be far too weak to cause any eye injury.
Despite the flaws in the CSI:Miami episode, it is good to inform the public about the general idea that laser pointers can potentially be hazardous. This is why you should never aim a laser at or near an aircraft.
A child aimed the beam from a laser level at my toddler son's eyes. Will he be OK?According to your letter, the laser level is Class 3R with an output less than 5 mW. This would not cause eye injury assuming your 2-year-old son blinked, turned his head or otherwise did not stare for seconds into the beam.
Even if the laser is slightly more powerful than 5 mW — for example, if it actually was 10 or 15 mW — any possible injury would be minor and would heal.
I understand that you have been to two ophthalmologists. All of them could not see your son’s entire retina, but they did not see any injury or abnormality in the central retina. This is to be expected. Should there be “hidden” damage in the outer part of the retina, even this would not adversely affect useful vision.
If this case involved laser pointers, I would be more cautious. Often laser pointers and handheld lasers that only emit beams are mislabeled. They may say “<5 mW” but actually be as much as 50 mW or more. But for a laser level purchased from a major hardware chain, it is likely that the laser does meet the U.S. government limit of 5 mW output.
Your son will be fine; you do not need to worry.
(Thanks to JP, who asked this question April 20 2018)
A teacher aimed red, green and purple handheld laser pointers at my 4-year-old child (and the rest of her class) during a science demonstration I attended. When I asked the teacher about the laser, he said it was 5 mW. Is there any damage that can be caused by quick glances into the eyes?
At a power level of 5 milliwatts, there is no damage that can be caused by quick glances into the eyes.
That said, the teacher showed EXTREMELY poor judgment and set a bad example for the children. No one should ever deliberately aim a laser pointer at someone's face or into their eyes.
Five milliwatts is the maximum allowed in the U.S. for a laser to be sold as a "pointer". This low power level would not cause eye injury for a momentary exposure, where the laser is being waved around or flashed across eyes. However, if a person was to deliberately stare into a 5 mW laser pointer for many seconds, then heat can build up in the eye and cause retinal damage. But that was not the case in this situation, so the children are OK.
I originally had concerns over the purple laser pointer, since it was probably well over 5 mW. (This is because human eyes do not pick up blues, purples and reds as well as green and yellow light. If a green 5 mW laser looks a given brightness, a red 5 mW laser will appear only about 25% as bright, and a purple laser would appear only about 3% as bright. Said another way, the purple laser would have to be roughly 30 times more powerful, around 180 mW, to appear as bright to the eye as a green 5 mW laser.)
Fortunately, I understand from a phone conversation that the teacher aimed the purple pointer only at the ceiling, not at the children. This is good. However, the other two lasers also should have been aimed well above or away from the children as well. I am glad to hear that you spoke with the teacher and he will not be doing this again.
(Thanks to JM, who wrote December 6 2018)
STORE LASER SCANNERS
Can the laser scanner at a checkout injure my eyes?
The very short answer is “no”. Here are more details:
In stores you often see a hand-held scanner which is aimed at the Universal Product Code “stripes” on a package. Or you see a window in the checkout counter, over which the UPC code is passed.
Sometimes LEDs are used as the light source, but often lasers are used. You can tell if it is a laser because there will be a pattern or geometric shape made up of thin lines; this is one example:
Image via Wikipedia, by Alessio Damato
Having the scanned laser light go into your eyes is not hazardous. In the U.S., the laser power for a checkout scanner must be below 5 milliwatts. This is the same as the power limit for a laser sold as a pointer.
It is difficult enough for a 5 mW laser pointer to cause damage to a person’s eyes. You pretty much have to stare at the beam at very close range, making a deliberate exposure to the single “dot” of the pointer. A 1998 Lancet article by Mensah, Vafidis and Marshall states “A 5 mW laser with high retinal irradiance is too weak to cause retinal damage, even if shone in the eye for several seconds.”
For a store’s laser scanner, the power is further spread out by being scanned rapidly over an area. This means that the “dot” of laser light cannot remain on the same area of the retina and build up heat.
While having a laser scanned pattern in your eyes can be annoying (and rude if deliberately done by a cashier), there is no cause for concern.
A very quick test is to close your eyes and see if you have any afterimage from the exposure (similar to the afterimage caused by a camera flash, or the sun glinting off a reflective object.) Normally you should not have an afterimage, or it should fade in less than a minute. If you do have a longer-lasting afterimage, or any new spots in your visual field, you may wish to have an eye exam by an ophthalmologist or a retinal specialist. Even then, this is suggested only for an extraordinary exposure such as deliberately staring into the scanner, or if the scanner is suspected to be malfunctioning and is brighter than normal.
It would not be economical to require laser scanners to have additional safety features, such as eye detection (to turn off if they see an eye) or a direction detector (to turn off unless the laser is facing downwards). Between the low power of the laser itself, plus the added safety of a constantly-moving beam, an accidental or unwanted exposure is not hazardous.
(Thanks to L.B., who asked this question February 10 2016)
LASER USE WHEN HUNTING
When hunting before dawn or during dusk, I want to know where my friend is. Can he aim a laser pointer at me as I wait in a tree stand?
As I understand your request, you want your friend to aim a laser pointer at you so that you will see the light and then know his location. This will happen outdoors in dim conditions: pre-dawn and dusk. You'll be in a stand with a window so you can look out and see his location.
Yes, your plan is feasible and safe with a low-powered Class 2 laser pointer (less than 1 milliwatt). You can get these online or at a pet or office supply store. The cost should be just a few dollars.
Either red or green should be fine. There is no difference between them in terms of eye hazard (color does not affect the hazard). The green will be more visible, but then you are at a relatively short distance so you should see the red just fine. And red is usually less expensive.
Just to be clear, the technique is that your friend will aim the laser pointer towards your location. You'll see a flash of light, as if he had aimed a red flashlight at you. One difference is that the beam is narrow enough so that only persons (or animals) looking straight back at the laser will see the flash.
You will NOT see the beam in mid-air except perhaps in unusual conditions such as rain, mist or fog.
Don't worry about eye injury. The Nominal Ocular Hazard Distance for a 1 mW laser is 24 feet. Plus you will not be staring into a steady light; instead, your friend will be aiming with his hand which is difficult to hold steady on a target. So the beam would be in your eye for only brief instants.
The only thing to worry about is if you get a mislabeled pointer. The pointer label might state that it is Class 2, but for various reasons -- evasion of import restrictions, incompetence at the factory -- the actual light output might be significantly higher than the U.S. limit for laser pointers which is Class IIIa or 3R (less than 5 milliwatts).
My suggestion is to buy three laser pointers, made by different companies, from different sources. They cost so little that this is a small investment in safety. Check out their brightness and use the dimmest of the three. If they all look about the same, great. But if one or two are much brighter, then do not use these for your hunting application.
Finally, it should go without saying: DO NOT USE THE LASER SIGHT ON A FIREARM for this application. If you have a gun or rifle that uses a laser for targeting, NEVER aim that laser at a person (except as a police officer or for self-defense when you intend to fire upon a person).
For the location application described above, use a handheld laser pointer, preferably in a color different than the color on your firearm. For example, if your hunting companion has a red laser sight, use a green pointer for locating purposes. If you see a green light aimed at you, fine. But if you see a red light you know that somehow your companion has mistaken you for a target and you need to take action.
(Thanks to Phil D. who asked this question October 5 2017)
I have some standard laser gunsights from Leapers now mounted on rifles with scopes. Both are very good, long distant ones with bright green laser dot, not cheapies.
If I look through my scope, close up or a far view setting, and have my green laser on, the bright green laser is now brightly centered in the scope's reticle.
My question is if this is safe to the eye's retina to view a green dot laser this way, being thus magnified in the scope?Yes, it is safe to view the green laser dot at a distance through the scope's reticle.
Laser light is dangerous when the beam is directly aimed into your eye. This is because the eye's lens will focus the beam down about 10,000 times to concentrate it on your retina. Whether an injury occurs will depend on the laser concentration (irradiance which is power over a given area) and on how long the beam sits at the same point on the retina.
Using a reticle, binoculars, camera, etc. to look at a distant laser dot is fine.
It is possible to incur an eye injury by looking at just the dot up close. This is called a diffuse exposure. It happens with very powerful lasers, when you are staring for a number of seconds. For example, if someone is trying to burn a hole in paper or light a cigarette with a Class 4 laser, and they stare right at the laser dot as things are smoldering --not smart!
Coming back to your use... again, looking through the reticle in the way the laser gunsight is intended to be used is perfectly safe.
(Thanks to Steve T., who asked this question December 13 2018)
REFLECTED LASER LIGHT
I am a calligrapher and use a laser level so I can write on straight lines. I am looking for an hour or two at lines of red Class IIIa laser light on paper. Could this harm my eyes over time?
No, this is not a problem.
First, the laser power already is low. You have a Class IIIa (also called 3R) laser which has a maximum output of 5 milliwatts. This is considered safe for momentary (less than 0.25 seconds) unintentional viewing of the direct beam going into your eyes. As long as you do not override your blink reflex or aversion response, and look directly into the laser beam for many seconds, you will be fine.
Second, the laser’s already low power is being spread out in two ways: 1) By being made into a line instead of a dot and 2) By hitting the paper and thus diffusing in many directions. Note that you can see the laser line from many different angles and positions. This indicates the beam power is spreading throughout the room. Your pupil is intercepting just a small part of all that diffused light.
Even though you are looking at the diffused line for an hour or two, this does not “build up” damage.
For visible-light lasers, the primary eye injury mechanism is thermal. Visible light goes through the clear lens where it is absorbed on the retina. If the power is too strong, and the light stays in one area long enough, heat cannot be carried off by blood vessels, and the retina will start to burn.
Thermal damage does not accumulate over time. It is like being in a house for many hours which is at a comfortable 72° F (22.2° C). This does not “build up” so you are overheated or start to burn — you remain comfortable.
(Note that blue light can cause photochemical damage which would require a separate analysis. In this case, the laser level light is red so the only damage mechanism is thermal.)
What power would it take to be a potential hazard? A 499 milliwatt laser — the most powerful Class 3B laser — is a diffuse reflection hazard if you aim the visible-light laser “dot” at a piece of white paper, and your eye is within 5 inches (12 cm) of the dot and you stare at it for more than 10 minutes. Keep in mind the laser beam is not going directly in your eye. The light is bouncing off a piece of paper or other non-reflective surface that spreads out the light in all directions.
It is primarily Class IV (4) lasers — 500 milliwatts or more — that can realistically be diffuse reflection hazards. For example, if you look at the dot from a 1000 milliwatt (1 watt) visible laser, and your eye is within 1.5 feet (44 cm) of the paper, and you stare at it for more than a minute, this could potentially cause a retinal burn. If you look at the dot from a 10,000 mW (10 W) visible laser within 1.8 feet (60 cm) for more than 10 seconds, this could potentially cause a retinal burn.
In summary, looking at a diffuse line of red light from a Class IIIa (3R) laser, even for a number of hours, will not cause any eye injury or damage.
(Thanks to Eugene from Ukraine, who asked this question February 7 2017)
I used a laser pico projector when tracing images for up to 6 hours at a time. Now my right eye is having problems. Could this be from over-exposure to the laser pico projector light?
According to three experts consulted by LaserPointerSafety.com, the exposure was not potentially hazardous.
Although the person looked at the light at close range — the projector was less than a meter from the tracing paper, and the person’s eye was less than 1/2 meter from the paper — and for a long time (up to 6 hours), the reflected laser light from the paper was not strong enough to cause eye damage.
The exposure was insufficient to cause photochemical damage, where ultraviolet or blue light exposure causes “sunburn” of the cornea and lens. And it definitely could not cause thermal damage, where concentrated laser light like from a beam goes through the transparent cornea and lens, and is absorbed by the retina.
The experts suggested other causes, particularly age-related macular degeneration which can occur over a short period of time.
More information is on the Laser pico projectors page; scroll down to the “Case study” section.
(Thanks to B.H. who asked this question August 28 2017)
SAFE AND LEGAL USE IN THE NIGHT SKY
Aircraft can look like stars. What is the best way to point out stars in the night sky?
A slow-moving, far-away aircraft can look like a star. If you are doing astronomy pointing at a "star talk", use the laser pointer to circle unknown or faint objects. Don't point directly at them unless you are sure it is a star (i.e., Orion's belt or the Big Dipper handle). For more information on star pointing applications, see this page.
In the U.S. it is illegal to aim at the flight path of an aircraft. Given that just about anywhere in the sky there could be a flight path, is this a problem for legal laser use?The U.S. law signed by President Obama in Feb. 2012 makes it illegal to knowingly aim laser pointer beams at an aircraft, or at the flight path of such an aircraft.
Fortunately for amateur astronomers or other legitimate outdoor users, there is little chance of having the flight path clause invoked by prosecutors, for the following reasons:
- The cases that are brought for trial are ones where a person deliberately aimed at an aircraft. Someone on the aircraft saw beams coming near or at the aircraft. They then either called police, or they were the police.
- In most prosecuted cases, there are multiple beam illuminations involved -- e.g., a laser is tracking the aircraft and illuminates it multiple times. It is rare for any single-illumination incidents to be identified or prosecuted.
- Usually the person prosecuted has some sort of antisocial characteristic such as a criminal record, being on probation or in a gang, being hostile with arresting officers, possessing drugs at the time of arrest, etc.
There are only a few prosecuted cases involving a claimed or actual astronomy use.
In an abstract sense, any laser beam in the sky is probably touching some aircraft's flight path. But this has not been the type of case that worries safety experts, or the type of case that prosecutors bring to trial.
LASER POINTER TECHNOLOGY
How is a laser pointer different from other lasers?Surprisingly, there is no generally accepted definition of a laser "pointer".
In the U.S., the federal FDA/CDRH indicates that pointers are "hand-held lasers that are promoted for pointing out objects or locations" with output power less than 5 milliwatts. According to FDA, promotion of lasers above 5 milliwatts "for pointing and amusement" violates FDA requirements and U.S. law.
(Some may consider this to be a loophole. If a hand-held laser is not promoted for pointing or amusement purposes, then it can legally be sold.)
Starting in 2010, FDA/CDRH appeared to be closing the loophole by defining handheld portable lasers as "surveying, leveling and alignment" (SLA) lasers. Since FDA/CDRH has authority over SLA lasers, the agency may use this new regulatory interpretation to limit the sale of handheld portable lasers over 5 milliwatts. For more information, see the page FDA authority over laser pointers and handheld lasers.
In New South Wales (Australia), a pointer is a Schedule 1 Prohibited Weapon: "A laser pointer, or any other similar article, consists of a hand-held, battery-operated device with a power output of more than 1 milliwatt, designed or adapted to emit a laser beam and that may be used for the purposes of aiming, targeting or pointing."
In Victoria (Australia), a pointer is also a prohibited weapon. It is defined as: "A hand-held, battery-operated article designed or adapted to emit a laser beam with an accessible emission limit of greater than 1 mW."
If one wants to own a laser with greater power, it is easy enough to do so. There is the inconvenience of having to run off of mains (AC) power, but then again AC outlets are everywhere, including automobiles (using a low-cost inverter like the one shown below).
Also, if an evil person wanted to do harm with a laser beam, it would be easy for them to use a regular laser. A ban or restriction on pointers would have no effect on them.
More information on existing and suggested definitions of “laser pointer” is on the page “If you are writing a laser law…”.
What is the maximum allowed power?
There is no "maximum" power in the U.S. and many other countries. A person can buy a laser of whatever power they want, even tens of watts.
For use by the general public as a laser "pointer", the maximum is supposed to be 5 milliwatts (U.S.) or 1 milliwatt (U.K.). Obviously, much more powerful handheld lasers are available. As long as they are not advertised for pointing or beam-display purposes, sale of lasers above 5 mW is legal in the U.S. Also, it can be difficult or low priority for law enforcement to track down illegally-marked or distributed lasers.
For more information, see the Rules for U.S. consumers page.
What laser pointers are legal?
The short answer is that laser pointers under 5 milliwatts (U.S.) or under 1 milliwatt (U.K.) are legal for sale. Details are below.
Manufacturing and sales: Lasers sold to the public as "pointers" or for pointing purposes must be less than 5 milliwatts (5/1000 of a watt). This power is high enough so the laser "dot" is sufficiently visible for pointing out things, and is low enough to not be an eye hazard under conditions of accidental exposure. It is not intended or legal to sell lasers for pointing that are 5 milliwatts or more. Beginning in 2010, the FDA/CDRH is classifying handheld portable lasers as "surveying, leveling and alignment" (SLA) lasers, and may be trying to further restrict sales of lasers above 5 milliwatts based on this new rules interpretation. For more information, see the pages Rules for U.S. sellers and FDA authority.
Ownership: There is no federal law against owning a laser, of any power. (Some states and localities may have their own laws.) Therefore, at the federal level, an "illegal laser pointer" is illegal only from the manufacturer's or seller's standpoint. An "illegal" laser is too powerful to be sold or promoted for pointing purposes, or it may be lacking required safety features. If such a laser is sold to end users, the manufacturer may be required to do a recall, repair, replacement or refund. It is then up to the end user whether they wish to comply with the recall, repair, replacement or refund notice. [NOTE: This analysis is based on LaserPointerSafety.com's research. If you need specific legal advice, consult a lawyer with experience in this area.] For more information, see the page Rules for U.S. consumers.
In the United Kingdom, laser pointers must be under 1 milliwatt. Pointers above this power will be seized on import; for example, in November 2008 a shipment of 5 milliwatt laser pointers was seized.
What should I do if I have an "illegal" pointer or high-powered laser?
From a safety standpoint, what you should do depends on the laser's power. There is no need for a laser over 5 milliwatts for most indoor pointing purposes. For outdoor daytime use, a higher power such as 50 milliwatts would be necessary so the laser “dot” is visible on a surface. For astronomy pointing purposes, you can see the beam of a green lasers in the 4 to 20 mW range.
Even for most experimenters and enthusiasts, there is usually no need for above 50 mW (exceptions: popping/burning experiments or home laser shows).
If you have a laser in this "extra caution range" of roughly 5 to 20-50 mW, you can discard the laser if you want, or use it with added care. Be especially careful not to annoy or injure bystanders. It is one thing if you are hurt, it is another thing to involve someone else.
If the laser is above 20-50 milliwatts, hazards are increased. Except for mature and careful experimenters, we recommend that you safely discard the laser.
LaserPointerSafety.com does not recommend that the general public own or use Class 4 lasers, which are 500 milliwatts and above (above 1/2 watt). If you must have a high-powered laser for some reason, be sure to read and always follow the safety warnings.
There is good information on the page Don't aim at head and eyes; be sure to download and read the appropriate PDF flyer for your laser's power level. There is also information about the hazards and safe usage tips for Class 2 (up to 1 mW), Class 3R or IIIa (1-5 mW), Class 3B (5-500 mw) and Class 4 (500 mW and up) visible lasers.
From a legal standpoint, to find out more about whether you can keep an illegally labeled or manufactured laser, see the Rules for U.S. consumers page.
Are high-power laser pointers required to have specific features?
In the United States, lasers above 5 mW (Classes 3B and 4) must have proper labeling, an emission indicator, and an interlock with a key or pin that prevents emission if the pin/key is removed. Note that this means the laser can remain continuously on as long as the pin/key is inserted and the switch or button is turned on (there does not have to be a momentary pushbutton that turns off when pressure is released). Also, lasers above 5 mW cannot be marketed as "laser pointers" or for purposes of surveying, alignment or pointing.
There may be some confusion between the original U.S. laser laws, 21 CFR 1040.10 and 1040.11, and CDRH's Laser Notice #50, which was first issued in 2001 and was updated in 2007. Laser Notice #50 allows U.S. marketing of laser products certified using international standard IEC 60825-1. This removes the requirement for a shutter, and for an emission delay circuit. Also, warning labels can follow IEC instead of CDRH, if desired. This harmonizes U.S. law with international standards.
What is the maximum power needed for laser pointing?
50 milliwatts is probably the maximum needed power for almost any laser pointing use.
For seeing the laser "dot" on a wall or surface indoors or in dim light, 5 milliwatts of green is fine. The most demanding general-use pointing application is for pointing out objects in bright sunlight such as a daytime city architecture tour, and for pointing out stars at night when it is necessary to see the beam in mid-air. For these uses, 5-25 mW should be fine, with a maximum of 50 mW for tough situations (high ambient light brightness, showing stars to a large group).
The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority states that 20 mW is the limit: “It is not known that laser pointers that are stronger than approx. 20 milliwatts can be used for anything useful. The effect of laser pointers used to point out constellations and like at night, should not exceed a maximum of 20 milliwatts. The reason is that the beam can destroy the night vision of the spectators so that they can no longer perceive weak starlight.” (For Norway’s regulations, see the International laws page, then click on the item “NORWAY: Possession and use regulated.”)
A 2010 study, “Green Laser Pointers for Visual Astronomy: How Much Power Is Enough?”, had 23 observers adjust the power of a 532 nm green laser beam “propagating skyward through the atmosphere in a heavily light-polluted urban setting.” The lowest power where the beam could clearly be seen was between 1.4 and 5.6 milliwatts. The average of all powers chosen was 2.4 milliwatts. The authors concluded that “Green laser pointers with output powers below 5 mW (laser classes American National Standards Institute 3a or International Electrotechnical Commission 3R) appear to be sufficient for use in educational nighttime outdoors activities, providing enough bright beams at reasonable safety levels.”
If you like to pop balloons, ignite matches, or put the laser through textured glass for a private light show in your home, you may want a more powerful laser. But this is no longer a POINTER application.
What laser color is best?
A green laser is the most visible. The eye sees green better (more efficiently) than other colors. A 5 mW green laser will appear much brighter than a 5 mW red or blue laser.
Note that in terms of eye injury hazards, the color does not matter. More milliwatts means a greater potential eye hazard, no matter what the beam color. (This is for visible lasers; for infrared or ultraviolet lasers, the primary injury area is the cornea and not the retina.)
For more information on the apparent visibility of different colors, see the page Basic principles of hazards, item #5, about green lasers being more of a visual hazard than an equivalent red or blue laser.
I want to make my own laser to burn things. Is this dangerous?
Yes, you need to know about the potential dangers before deciding to build such a laser. These include obvious hazards such as too much visible light, and non-obvious hazards, such as the possibility of too much invisible (infrared) light. For much more information, visit the DVD flashlight hack safety warning page.
What is a "military grade" laser?In some news stories, sometimes an authority such as police or military will state that a “military grade” or “military strength” laser was used.
This is an imprecise term with no established meaning. The military does not grade or rate lasers except by the standard Class 1, Class 2 etc. classification system used for all types of lasers.
The authority is probably trying to say simply that the laser was stronger than a laser pointer. In the U.S., lasers sold as pointers cannot be over 5 mW; in many other countries the limit for consumer lasers is 1 mW.
Lasers more powerful than this are readily available to consumers. Usually they are obtained from small-scale Internet sellers, or are purchased when on an overseas vacation.
The imprecise term “military grade” does NOT mean the laser was used by, or obtained from the military. It does NOT mean the laser has any special capability that “civilian lasers” wouldn’t also have.
In rough terms, it may mean a laser at the higher end of Class 3B (a few hundred milliwatts) or Class 4 (anything above 500 milliwatts, which is the same as 1/2 watt). These lasers can cause eye injury for short exposures, and can be a skin burn hazard at relatively close ranges. It is important to note that laser light spreads out, so a “military grade” laser beam that is a significant eye hazard at close range, could be relatively safe or totally safe hundreds or thousands of feet away.
Finally, in cases where the laser is not found, it would be difficult to know how powerful the laser is. While some rough estimates can be done, it would not be wise to state with certainty that a particular power or Class of laser was used — at least not without having the laser or having some additional information such as measurements of the beam power or irradiance.
Thanks to G.L. for asking this question, August 13 2018.
What is a "commercial grade" or "industrial grade" laser?“Commercial grade” or “industrial grade” are imprecise terms, probably intended to mean lasers with more power than laser pointers (1-5 mW).
There is no widespread use of these terms. There is no generally accepted definition.
See the answer above about “military grade”. Everything said about “military grade” also applies to the term “commercial grade” or “industrial grade”.
Here is a list of some news stories using “commercial grade”.
Is a laser pointer ban effective?
Banning or severely restricting laser pointers seems like a simple, attractive solution to misuse such as pointing at aircraft. However, there are a number of problems:
- It is hard to effectively define laser pointers. To give one example, if "battery powered" lasers are banned, it still is relatively easy to find AC outlets in public spaces, or to use a low-cost inverter to run a laser off a car's 12-volt power socket.
- It is hard to enforce. In a world with Internet sales by mail, and easy world travel, it becomes difficult to check every package or person at Customs to see if they have a laser pointer.
- It does not stop someone who really wants a laser. It is easy to get new or used lasers, either by themselves or built into equipment. DVD and Blu-Ray players, and some video projectors, contain powerful laser diodes. If hobbyists can get these, so can anyone with evil intent. Said another way, "When laser pointers are outlawed, only outlaws will have laser pointers."
- It stops legitimate use of laser pointers by teachers, business people, astronomy educators and others who find a laser ideal for pointing out objects.
- "It is like banning the kitchen knife because we have people using the knives incorrectly," according to Professor Hans Bachor, president of the Australian Optical Society, as quoted by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
It is unclear whether a laser pointer ban significantly reduces laser incidents. For example, Australia banned laser pointers above 1 milliwatt in 2008, yet the number of aircraft illuminated by lasers rose significantly over the next four years. While the subsequent three years did show a reduction, the rate was still about 3.5 times that of the pre-ban illuminations.
Anyone who wants to deliberately use a laser for bad purposes can easily do so, ban or no ban. For example, on a per capita basis, Australia's rate is 2.8 times the U.S. rate despite the ban. While there may be other factors, this is an indication that bans may not work. (We have a list of aviation-related laser pointer incidents in Australia.)
In 2013, it was reported that Australia's bans had the effect of making online pointers more unsafe. Sellers illegally understated the power of lasers, so they could be imported. 95% of pointers tested were above the Australian limit of 1 mW, and 78% of those tested were also above the US limit of 5 mW. Persons interested in whether bans work should read the article "Ban on laser pointers has been a 'detriment' to safety.
We have additional information on the page Tax handheld lasers and pointers?
For an interesting perspective, see this online debate about banning laser pointers. Note that there are some inaccuracies or misconceptions in the material so do not rely completely on the arguments and data in this online debate.
The Economist magazine printed an article "The Case for the Defence" on October 30 2013, stating "But no aeroplane accident has ever been convincingly attributed to a laser pointer, and numerous fail-safes make such an accident highly unlikely. Also, high-powered laser pointers are fun and useful—especially for stargazers. It would be a shame to see them banned because of a few foolish people. One hopes that politicians will see the value in these sorts of products. One does, at least: earlier this month the governor of New Jersey, Chris Christie, vetoed a bill that would have banned even low-powered laser pointers in his state."
How does laser misuse compare with knife misuse?
Laser misuse pales next to knife misuse. In 2010 there were 130,000 assaults yearly with knives and cutting instruments. Compare this with with the 7,703 FAA-reported laser illuminations in 2016. Also, compare the over 2 million serious knife injuries each year with the handful of eye injuries reportedly caused by handheld lasers.
Certainly laser illuminations and injuries should be reduced as much as possible, especially with regard to aiming at aircraft. But the above data helps to give some perspective on the relative risk of these two handheld devices. Statistically, a person is much more likely to be injured by or assaulted with a knife or blade, than to be injured by a pointer or to be on an aircraft illuminated by a laser.
(For detailed statistics on deaths and injuries caused by knives, see the "Knives" section of the Risks of pointers and other items webpage.)
I am upset and want to pass a law against lasers. Where do I start?
Any law restricting laser equipment or usage needs to be carefully considered. It should effectively address the problem without infringing on rights of legitimate users. This page has some suggestions. In addition, check out the list of selected international and U.S. laser laws. You can read both well-written statutes, and poorly-worded ones.
You may want to have SAE G-10T take a look at your proposed law, to help provide suggestions for improvement.
What is the SAE G10T and why should I care?
The SAE G10T Laser Hazards Subcommittee studies laser uses in airspace. Members include laser safety experts, pilots, military safety officers, and laser users for industry, military, research, and displays. They write reports such as ARP5293, “Safety Considerations for Lasers Projected in the Navigable Airspace.” Their recommendations are often adopted by aviation authorities such as the U.S. FAA.
The G10T subcommittee is one of the few groups monitoring laser/aircraft incidents. If they called for restrictions or a ban on laser pointers, their recommendations would carry great weight.
More information is on this website's page SAE G10T Laser Hazards Subcommittee.
How can I support LaserPointerSafety.com?
This website is a one-person operation that takes a significant amount of time. We welcome assistance from sponsors and supporters. For more information, see our Sponsorship opportunities page.
Why is ILDA helping sponsor this website?
The International Laser Display Association represents manufacturers of laser shows and projectors. While many ILDA members own and enjoy laser pointers, the pointers are not needed in creating shows.
ILDA does not have an official position on laser pointers, or on laser misuse. ILDA as a sponsor has provided some resources for this website, as a public service. One reason is that, if the general public sees pointers as dangerous, this could have an indirect negative impact on laser show productions.